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Transportation in Modern Egypt

Buses : 
There is a public bus system that offers several lines of service in different classes and prices. There is the standard bus service, the air-conditioned service, known as CTA short for Cairo Transportation Authority (for a higher price) and Mini-buses (smaller buses and more extensive network).
Taxis :
Other transportation services includes the traditional Cairo Taxi and Micro-buses, both are privately run by individuals. The traditional Cairo Taxi is also run by individuals and usually operate on older models of cars that are slowly being replaced by the government plans in an effort for a more modern look in the city and to offer a more reliable, luxurious and advanced taxi service in modern air-conditioner cars .

The Micro-buses :
These are the cheapest form of transportation in Cairo, yet not very reliable. 
Metro : 
The Cairo Metro in Egypt is Africa's only full-fledged metro system. The system currently consists of two operational lines, with a third in an advanced stage of planning. The metro is run by the National Authority for Tunnels. The city has an extensive subway system that runs on a regular schedule. 
Train :
Cairo is extensively connected to other Egyptian cities and villages by rail operated by the Egyptian National Railways. Cairo's main railway station - Ramses Station (Mahattat Ramses) is located on Ramses square.
Nile Ferry :
There is a maritime ferry boat system that crosses the Nile River.

Transport facilities in Egypt are centered in Cairo and largely follow the pattern of settlement along the Nile. The main line of the nation's 4,800-kilometer (2,800-mi.) railway network runs from Alexandria to Aswan and operated by Egyptian National Railways. The well-maintained road network has expanded rapidly to over 21,000 miles, covering the Nile Valley and Nile Delta, Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts, the Sinai, and the Western oases.

Egypt Air provides reliable domestic air service to major tourist destinations from its Cairo hub, in addition to overseas routes. The Nile River system (about 1,600 km. or 1,000 mi.) and the principal canals (1,600 km.) are important locally for transport.

Road System  An extensive road network connects Cairo with other Egyptian cities and villages. There is a new Ring Road that surrounds the outskirts of the city, with exits that reach to almost every Cairo district. There are flyovers, and bridges such as the Sixth of October bridge that allows straight, fast and efficient means of transportation from one side of the city to the other.
Cairo traffic is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded.